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JUNE 2

1537 – Pope Paul III bans the enslavement of Indians in the New World

1731 – The first First Lady of the US, Martha Dandridge Washington, is born

1740 – The Marquis de Sade, Donatien Alphonse Francois is born

1774 – The Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to allow British soldiers into their houses, is reenacted

1793 – Maximilien Robespierre, a member of France’s Committee on Public Safety, initiates the “Reign of Terror”

1815 – Union army general Philip Kearny is born

1823 – Arikara Indians attack William Ashley and his band of fur traders, igniting one of the most import 19th century battles between Indians and mountain men

1818 – The British army defeats the Maratha alliance in Bombay, India

1840 – English poet and novelist Thomas Hardy is born

1847 – Felix Mendelssohn’s Wedding March is used at a wedding for the first time by Dorothy Carew and Tom Daniel, although it will not become famous until it is used by Princess Royal and Prince Frederick William of Prussia in 1858

1857 – English composer Edward Elgar is born

1859 – French forces cross the Ticino River

1865 – At Galveston, Texas, Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith surrenders the Trans-Mississippi Department to Union forces

1882 – Italian politician Giuseppe Garibaldi dies

1883 – The first baseball game under electric lights is played in Fort Wayne, Indiana

1886 – Grover Cleveland becomes the first American president to wed while in office

1903 – Inventor of pulse radar, physicist Robert Morris Page is born

1904 – American gold-winning Olympic swimmer who portrayed Tarzan in films, Johnny Weissmuller is born

1910 – Charles Stewart Rolls, one of the founders of Rolls-Royce, becomes the first man to fly an airplane nonstop across the English Channel both ways. Tragically, he becomes Britain’s first aircraft fatality the following month when his biplane breaks up in midair

1913 – English novelist Barbara Pym is born

1915 – Austro-Hungarian and German troops continue their attacks on Russian soldiers holding Przemysl (now in Poland), the citadel guarding the northeastern-most point of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

1921 – Torrential rains in Pueblo County, Colorado cause a flash flood that kills over 100 and does millions in damages

1924 – The US grants full citizenship to American Indians

1928 – Nationalist Chiang Kai-shek captures Peking, China, in a bloodless takeover

1935 – Baseball great Babe Ruth retires

1941 – American baseball player Lou Gehrig dies

1942 – The American aircraft carriers Enterprise, Hornet and Yorktown move into their battle positions for the Battle of Midway

1944 – Allied “shuttle bombing” of Germany begins, with bombers departing from Italy and landing in the Soviet Union

1946 – Italian citizens vote by referendum for a republic

1948 – Jamaican-born track star Herb McKenley sets a new world record for the 400 yard dash

1953 – Elizabeth II is crowned queen of England at Westminster Abbey

1954 – Senator Joseph McCarthy charges that there are communists working in the CIA and atomic weapons plants

1956 – Indian director, screenwriter and producer Mani Ratnam is born

1965 – The first contingent of Australian combat troops arrive by plane in Saigon

1965 – Australian cricket player Steve Waugh is born

1965 – Australian cricket player and journalist Mark Waugh is born

1967 – Captain Howard Levy, a dermatologist from Brooklyn, is convicted by a general court-martial in Fort Jackson, South Carolina, of willfully disobeying orders and making disloyal statements about US policy in Vietnam. Levy had refused to provide elementary instruction in skin disease to Green Beret medics on the grounds that the Green Berets would use medicine as “another tool of political persuasion” in Vietnam

1969 – The Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne slices the destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in half off the shore of South Vietnam

1970 – Race car driver Bruce McLaren dies in a crash while testing an experimental car of his own design at a track in Goodwood, England

1977 – Short story writer Raymond Carter quits drinking after being hospitalized four times the previous year

1979 – Pope John Paul II becomes the first pontiff to visit a communist country when he visits his native Poland

1985 – Serial killer Leonard Lake is arrested near San Francisco. Lake worked with Charles Ng, and the pair were responsible for the kidnapping and murders of young women in the California area. Inspired by the John Fowles’ book The Collector, they kidnapped women and attempted to brainwash them into becoming their sex slaves. They also kidnapped and murdered a young couple and their infant son while pretending to be interested in buying some audiovisual equipment from them. Lake ingested a cyanide capsule while in custody, killing himself. Ng escaped to Canada, then spent years finding ploys to get out of trial. In the end, however, he was tried, convicted and sentenced to death

1985 – The Union of European Football Associations bans English soccer clubs from competing in Europe, following the death of 39 Italian and Belgian soccer fans at Brussels’ Heysel Stadium in a riot caused by English hooligans

1987 – Spanish guitarist Andres Segovia dies

1997 – Timothy McVeigh is convicted on 15 counts of murder and conspiracy for his role in the 1995 terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

2008 – American singer, songwriter and guitarist Bo Diddley dies

2012 – Former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak is found guilty of failing to stop the killings of hundreds of anti-government demonstrators during the 2011 popular uprising that forced an end to his nearly 30 years in power. He was sentenced to life in prison at age 84

2013 – Australian singer, songwriter and guitarist Mandawuy Yunupingu dies

Hudson Reed Showers